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EARLY HUMANS

References:
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4. Source The next item of information tells you where to find the title. Broadly speaking, there are three options:

  1. The title refers to an article in an academic journal, in which case the name of the journal should appear in italics after the title, as in the first example below.
  2. The title refers to a chapter in a book, in which case the name of the book should appear in italics after the chapter title, as in the second example.
  3. The title refers to a whole book, in which case, of course, the title of the book appears immediately after the date of publication, as in the third example below.

Gamble, C. 1991. The social context for European Palaeolithic art. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 57(1), 3-15.

Mellars, P . 1994. The Upper Palaeolithic revolution. In B. Cunliffe (ed/s.) The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe . Oxford: University Press, 42-78.

Lawson, A.J. 1991. Cave Art. Aylesbury: Shire Archaeology.

There are, of course, a few exceptions. The main one you are likely to encounter is when the title refers to an edited volume; that is, a book that contains chapters written by several different authors. In this case, one or more editors have brought the chapters together and their names should appear with 'eds' in parentheses (brackets) after the book's title, as is the case in the second example, above.

5. Publication details For journals this is vital information. It contains the volume number and pages in which the article appears; without these you can spend hours leafing through every issue. But it is also important for books, where the city of publication and publisher should allow you to track down most books. The conventions vary and are different for journal and books, but the information you will require is normally given on the front cover or, more often, the title page of the publication:

For journals, the volume number is usually given as a numeral (sometimes in bold print), followed by the issue number (if there is one), in brackets;

Isaac, G. 1979. The food sharing behaviour of proto-human hominids. Scientific American. 238, 90-108.

Bunn, H. , Kroll, J. , 1986. Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge. Current Anthropology. 27(5), 431-136.

For books, the city or town of publication should be given, followed by the name of the publishing house. These two details should be separated by a colon (:).

Stringer, C. 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. London: Thames & Hudson.

6. Page Numbers The final piece of information you will need are the page numbers. Page numbers are only required for journal articles, where several articles will appear in each volume and the page numbers will help you locate the right one quickly, and in books where only a chapter is referred to. The usual convention is to give both the first and last page numbers, separated by a hyphen (-):

Toth, N. 1984. The Olduwan reconsidered: A close look at early stone artifacts. Journal of Archaeological Science. 20, 101-120.

Stringer, C. 1984. The origin of anatomically modern humans in Western Europe. In F. Smith and F Spencer (ed/s.) The Origins of Moderns Humans.. New York: Liss, 51-136.

A word about the Web
Increasingly a lot of information can be found on the World Wide Web (WWW). It is important not to forget to correctly reference any web resources you use in your written work. In general, the format is the same was with printed material, the only difference being:

In terms of formatting, the year the source was produced (if known) is usually placed after the title and source of the site. This is followed by the URL. The date (day, month and year) on which the source was accessed follows the URL and is usually placed in parentheses.

Creswell Heritage Trust 2003. Virtually the Ice Age. http://www.creswell-crags.org.uk/, (accessed 02-10-2003)